Genetic Engineering

For many years artificial selection has been used to produce better quality animals and plants to provide better yield and better quality of meat, milk, vegetables, fruits, etc. But it has been 40 years since genetic engineering had started and has slowly become part of our lives. Genetic Engineering is the process of modifying a… Continue reading Genetic Engineering

Calculating Magnification

This is going to be a short blog. The most important thing for a biologist, and a science student is knowing how to calculate magnification. It is crucial for a practical exam and practical tests. This is even useful for those who are in the alternate to practical section. Calculating Magnification is necessary for questions… Continue reading Calculating Magnification


Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which the concentration of glucose increases in the body exceeding the limitations of the body. This is a dangerous disease because if it is left untreated then the patient will develop many more diseases like heart disease, kidney failure and would have weak iris in the eye.… Continue reading Diabetes


Fermentation is the process used to manufacture antibiotics, foods and drinks. It mainly involves the use microorganisms. It is a modern and a very useful technique. This process is used commercially across the globe to ferment products such as yogurt, cheese, bread, beer and various other products. Making Beer Yeast is added on to a… Continue reading Fermentation

Ecological Cycles

Ecological cycles consist of mainly 2 cycles; the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle. These cycles are very important to know of. The reason for this is that nitrogen and carbon dioxide are in limited amounts and have to be reused again and again. Carbon dioxide is in low amounts in the atmosphere in the… Continue reading Ecological Cycles

Artificial Selection

Charles Darwin was heavily inspired by the artificial selection which had led him to the theory of natural selection. He noticed that pigeon breeding was a common hobby at that time and observed that breeding the pigeons led to the production of a genetically different pigeon, which led to pigeons with different phenotype. He concluded… Continue reading Artificial Selection

Natural Selection

Natural Selection is a theory which suggests the occurrence of evolution among organisms which help the future generations survive in the world. Evolution has been discusses and observed over the ages, since the time of the ancient Greeks and was first witnessed in the 20th century. The theory was first proposed by the British biologist Charles Darwin and is accepted even today even though he was unaware of chromosomes, gene and DNA or even allele!

Chromosome Mutation

Chromosome Mutation: As read in my previous article; genetic mutation, you should know that chromosome mutation is an error in cell division. By this we mean that during cell division the chromosomes in any one pair do not divide and remain intact. This results in one daughter cell lacking chromosome in its one pair while… Continue reading Chromosome Mutation

Genetic Mutation

Mutation: DNA replicates itself in a complex process during mitosis and meiosis. However, when the DNA replication goes wrong and the gene changes, it produces an allele. This is why an allele is defined as the different forms of genes. This change in gene is called a genetic mutation. Mutation also occurs in chromosomes. The… Continue reading Genetic Mutation

The Circulatory System

The Circulatory System: The circulatory system consists of the heart, the arteries, the veins and the capillaries. It is about circulating blood across the body and then returning it back to the heart. The heart pumps out blood through the aorta and into the arteries. As heart beats every second so the blood is pushed… Continue reading The Circulatory System

Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary Heart Disease Arteries which supply the heart with oxygen through the blood are called coronary arteries. When fatty substances are deposited on the endothelial wall of the coronary arteries, they reduce the amount of red blood cells passing through it. This causes the decrease in oxygen supply to the heart. This in turn causes… Continue reading Coronary Heart Disease

Organ Transplant

Antigens and organ transplant Antigens are chemical markers found in all cells. It is different in every species. The antigens are used by the immunity system to recognize the cells of its own body and the cells from the outside environment such as the cells of a bacteria or virus. The antigens on the blood… Continue reading Organ Transplant

Indicator species and Insecticides

Indicator species Some species only live in a non-polluted environment. Others survive in mildly polluted or a very polluted environment. The existence of these species indicates whether the environment is polluted or not. This is why these kind of species are called indicator species. An example of indicator species is lichens. These indicate air pollution… Continue reading Indicator species and Insecticides


Structure of DNA Almost every cell has a nucleus. In each nucleus there are chromosomes. In human cells there are 46 chromosomes (diploid number) except for the gametes in which there are 23 chromosomes (haploid number). In each chromosome there are long strands of DNA double helix (meaning two backbones connected by the bases). This… Continue reading Genetics

Syphilis and AIDS

Syphilis Syphilis is a disease caused by Treponema palladium, a bacteria. It enters the body mainly through mating with an infected person, It is also transmitted to a fetus from the placenta and can also be transmitted to a baby during child birth. Its signs and symptoms are hard to catch. Signs and Symptoms Syphilis… Continue reading Syphilis and AIDS

Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis and Meiosis These are basically types of cell division. Cell division occurs by mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is a general cell division found in every living organism. Meiosis is a type of cell division occurring only in the gametes (sperm and ovary). These actually refer to the division of nucleus. Mitosis Mitosis is a… Continue reading Mitosis and Meiosis

Dietary Needs of a Pregnant Woman

Dietary needs When a female gets pregnant she needs more care, more nutrients and minerals. This is because she carries her fetus. The fetus also feeds on the mother’s diet by diffusion, osmosis and active transport in the blood capillaries in the placenta discussed in the previous article. What every mother needs is a balanced… Continue reading Dietary Needs of a Pregnant Woman


Hiyah guys! Thanks for all of your support for this blog. Today my article is about how animals and humans reproduce in two ways. Note that this article is recommended for only adults and should not be read by children or teens below 18. If any child reads this article I am not to be… Continue reading Reproduction

Global Warming

Hello or Salam (May Allah Bless You). Today my article is about how human activities effects the ecosystem in various ways and how we can control these activities for controlling the damage to our ecosystem. I will provide photos for the article and write in the easiest of ways for you to have maximum understanding.… Continue reading Global Warming

Food Chain and Its effects

This article is about how living things interact with each other. Ecosystem, Population, Community Ecosystem is basically a habitat which has a variety of species of animals. Population is the total number of a specific specie. A community is made of various species. Food Chain You will know about food chain. Food chain is basically… Continue reading Food Chain and Its effects

Pollination and Germination

Asexual Reproduction in Plants This is simple. A sexual reproduction means to reproduce the same species of organism without the involvement of any gamete cell. Also there is only a single parent involved in this process. The parent involved produces a horizontal shoot called a runner which reaches far away from the parent. At the… Continue reading Pollination and Germination


Microorganisms are those organisms which can only be seen by a microscope. The most common known organisms are Fungi, Bacteria and Virus. These species have a specific importance for existence. Because : Microorganisms break down dead organic matter called decomposition. Microorganisms are further involved in ecological cycles such as the nitrogen and carbon dioxide cycle. Microorganisms… Continue reading Microorganisms


Endocrine system Our body is managed by two systems. One is the nervous system while the other is the endocrine system. The endocrine system revolves around various glands found in the body which secrete substances called hormones. These glands are called endocrine glands meaning ductless glands. The cells in these glands form hormones which then… Continue reading Hormones

Nervous System

Structure of nerves There are 2 types of nerves. The cranial nerves and the spinal nerves. These branch out into neurons. The neurons are of 3 types. Sensory neurons which send nerve impulses to the brain from sensory organs, Motor neurons which send nerve impulses to the muscles which make certain actions, and the relay… Continue reading Nervous System

The Structure of Skin

Homeostasis The maintenance of the internal environment of the body is called homeostasis. How this works is when the internal environment is out of order whether the temperature is high or low or the osmotic pressure is high or low. In any matter that puts the body out of order a stimulus is created which… Continue reading The Structure of Skin

The Role Of Kidneys

Metabolism Catabolism and Anabolism are altogether known as metabolism. It is basically all the chemical reactions in a body. Catabolism is the process of breaking down of complex substances while anabolism is building up of complex substances. Urinary System Kidneys are located in the back of the abdomen. There is a pair of kidneys in… Continue reading The Role Of Kidneys

Gaining Energy By Respiration

Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration is the breakdown of simple substances such as glucose, amino acids, sugars etc. to release energy. In this respiration a large number of oxygen is used and as a result water and carbon dioxide is produced. In such respiration a large number of energy is produced. Most organisms on… Continue reading Gaining Energy By Respiration

Newton’s three laws about Motion

Forces First of all you need to understand the basics. What we call force is basically a push or pull action which either moves an object at rest or stops an object in motion. Scalars and Vectors Scalars are physical Quantities. When these physical quantities are taken into consideration we must focus on their magnitude… Continue reading Newton’s three laws about Motion

Transport of materials in Plants

Vascular tissues and Vascular Bundles The xylem and phloem are altogether known as vascular bundles or tissues. The xylem and phloem act as the blood vessels found in the animals and humans. Except these are plants and the vascular tissues do not have any blood cell in it or plasma or platelets. Xylem Xylem is… Continue reading Transport of materials in Plants

The Science behind Speed

Speed, Velocity, Distance and Displacement: First of all you need to learn the difference between distance and displacement. Distance is the length you cover  regardless of your direction. You switch your direction while moving in a car or just running and that will be counted as the total distance you cover. Displacement is different. You… Continue reading The Science behind Speed

Calculating time and molecular distance

Basic and Derived Quantities: This is a basic knowledge of physics. Every one knows there are 7 types of basic quantities found in the world of physics. These are; Mass, Time, Length, Electric current, Temperature, Light and amount of substance. The Derived quantities are derived from the basic quantities such as speed which is derived… Continue reading Calculating time and molecular distance

Digestion in Plants

The Importance of Plants: Plants are autotrophic organisms, meaning that they can produce their own food. These Organisms are of immense importance. Every animal and human are directly and indirectly dependent on plants. These serve other species in many ways. Plants provide shelter and shade to other organisms and are a source of food for… Continue reading Digestion in Plants


What is Digestion?  Digestion is the breakdown of  complexly structured food into small and simple structured molecules which can diffuse through the plasma membrane of a cell to provide with energy. Digestion is done physically and chemically. Chewing the food in mouth is physical digestion while the enzyme reaction inside the body is chemical digestion.… Continue reading Digestion

Nutrition: A healthy diet

Energy from Food: Every one needs food, obviously. What most people probably don’t know is why we need food. Most people might say that when we get hungry we need food. That is not it. We need food for multiple reasons. The food substances found in food, the carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, water is required… Continue reading Nutrition: A healthy diet

How Enzymes work?

Enzymes: Enzymes are biological catalyst which increases the rate of chemical reactions inside the body without being chemically changed itself. Enzymes are produced by the cytoplasm of a cell. Enzymes, as every one knows, breaks down complex substances such as starch and turns it  into a simpler, smaller substance. The specialty of an enzyme is… Continue reading How Enzymes work?